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M6U4 Global Warming基于阅读的概要写作课:教学设计与反思

添加日期:2016-05-11  来源: 作者:Francy   点击数:2096   【收藏本页】  【字体:
 

M6U4 Global Warming基于阅读的概要写作课:教学设计与反思

瑞安五中 张含妮

一、教学目标:

1. 学生能够在理解阅读文本,分析文章结构的基础上明确该文章的概要应该包括哪些要点,能够感知要点和细节的区别。

2. 学生感知关键词并学会借助文章的一些特征如文章中使用的过渡词来寻找文章的一些关键细节。

3. 学生在关键词的帮助下用自己的语言概括文章的要点,并且能够用一些简单基础的方式来连接要点形成一篇概要文章。

二、教学过程:

Step 1: lead-in

(1) What do you think of writing a summary?

(2) What is a good summary?

      

(21-25)

理解准确,涵盖全部要点。

能准确使用相应的语法结构和词汇。

有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使所完成的概要结构紧凑。

完全使用自己的语言。

(3) Read a summary written by a student and students are asked to find the key points and decide which sentences are the details.

The earth is becoming warmer. It is due to human activity. Once, there was a small amount of gases in the atmosphere trapping heat from the sun and warming the earth. But now human add a great deal of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore more heat energy is trapped. Some people predict this will lead to a catastrophe. Others think more carbon dioxide is actually a positive thing.

Does this summary contain all the key points? How do you know?

Check the answer of the first task (analyze the structure of the passage) on students’ learning paper

Learning tip: know the structure of the passage

Step 2: Explore different ways to write summary

(1)   During the 20th century the temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when compared to other natural changes. So how has this come about and does it matter? Earth Care's Sophie Armstrong explores these questions.

S1: The earth is becoming warmer and Sophie Armstrong explores these questions.

S2: The temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit.

S3: The earth is becoming warmer. Sophie Armstrong explores how it has come about and if it matters.

a: Discussion: Which summary is the best one? Give your reasons (try to find the key words).

b: rewrite the third summary.

The earth is becoming warmer and Sophie Armstrong explores the cause and effect of it.

c: review how we write a summary for this paragraph.


Learning tip: find the topic sentence and rewrite it.

d: Have a try. Follow the steps and write a summary.

    Doctors say anger can be an extremely harmful emotion that can lead to many medical problems. They warn that angry feelings can lead to heart disease, stomach problems, headaches, emotional problems and possibly cancer.

Step 1: find the topic sentence

Step 2: circle the key words

Step 3: rewrite the topic sentence

Summary: Anger does harm to our health.

(2)   There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. All scientists subscribe to the view that the increase in the earth’s temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce energy. Some byproducts of this process are called “greenhouse” gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide. A scientist called Charles Keeling found that from 1957 to 1997 the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere went up from around 315 parts to around 370 parts per million.

S1:The increase is caused by human activity and the burning of fossil fuels.

S2: The human activity leads to global warming.

a: Discussion: Which summary is the better one? Give your reasons (try to find the key words).

b: rewrite the first summary.

Summary: The increase is caused by human activity especially the burning of fossil fuels.

c: review how we write a summary for this paragraph.

 

(3)  However, the attitude of scientists towards this rise is completely different. On the one hand, Dr Foster thinks that the trend which increases the temperature by 5 degrees would be a catastrophe. She says, " We can't predict the climate well enough to know what to expect, but it could be very serious." Others who agree with her think there may be a rise of several metres in the sea level, or predict severe storms, floods, droughts, famines, the spread of diseases and the disappearance of species. On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view, believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. They predict that any warming will be mild with few bad environmental consequences. In fact, Hambley states, "More carbon dioxide is actually a positive thing. It will make plants grow quicker; crops will produce more; it will encourage a greater range of animals-all of which will make life for human beings better."

S1: Different scientists have different attitudes.

S2:Scientists have different attitudes. Some of them believe it would be a catastrophe. Others think there will be few bad consequences, even positive effects.

a: Discussion: Which summary is the better one? Which way do we use here?

b: rewrite the second summary.

Summary: The increase is caused by human activity especially the burning of fossil fuels.

c: review how we write a summary for this paragraph.

Scientists have mixed attitudes. Some of them believe it would be a disaster while others think there will be few bad results, even positive effects.

d: Have a try. Follow the steps and write a summary.

    Doctors say the solution is learning how to deal with anger. They say the first step is to admit that you are angry and to recognize the real cause of the anger, then decide if the cause is serious enough to get angry about. If it is, they say, “Do not express your anger while angry. Wait until your anger has cooled down and you are able to express yourself calmly and reasonably”

Step 1: find the topic sentence

Step 2: find the important details

Step 3: circle the key words

Step 4: rewrite the topic sentence

Summary: Doctors suggest that people should learn to treat the anger by admitting, recognizing and cooling down anger.

(4) Join the sentences together

The earth is becoming warmer and Sophie Armstrong explores the cause and effect of it. The increase is caused by human activity especially the burning of fossil fuels. It is said the temperature will be increased by as high as 5 degrees Celsius. Scientists have different attitudes towards it. Some of them believe it would be a disaster while others think there will be few bad results, even positive effects.

Learning tip: Make the passage coherent

The earth is becoming warmer and Sophie Armstrong explores the cause and effect of it. The increase is caused by human activity especially the burning of fossil fuels. It is said the temperature will be increased by as high as 5 degrees Celsius, to which scientists have mixed attitudes towards it. Some of them believe it would be a disaster while others think there will be few bad results, even positive effects.

Step 3: A summary of this class

 Step 1: analyze the structure of the passage

 Step 2: find the topic sentence

 Step 3: look for the key words

 Step 4: make the summary coherent

三、教学反思

最初接到上课的任务时,我想了一下觉得这堂课我应该要在学生已经学习过阅读文本的前提下开展,否则对学生来说,写这篇文章的概要实在是过于困难。其他的老师听了我的想法便立即准备上这篇文章的阅读课。而我主要是在一个星期时间内备好课。由于之前没有上过概要写作的课,网上的资料也寥寥无几,我只能跟着自己的感觉和考试说明走。

一开始,我的想法很简单。我打算截取课文最后三段为写作文本,然后跟学生一起探讨写概要的一些方法技巧,最后提供学生一些说明文的概要练习。但是当我真正着手去做的时候却发现无从下手。我苦恼焦虑了好久。好在那个星期有了去湖州参加新高考疑难问题专题研训活动的机会,在研讨会上我观摩了两节基于阅读的写作课,还听了老师们关于概要写作的一些研究成果和报告。我如获至宝。晚上回去后立马写出了第一稿教学设计。在这稿教学设计中,我初步确定了该如何结合文本提炼概要写作方法。但是,我发现说明文的概要写作有一定的结构,如果我只截取文章的后三段,那么这篇文章就不具备说明文的典型结构了。因此,我还是将整篇文章作文概要写作的文本。我将文章分为introductioncauseeffectattitudeconclusion五部分,以这五部分为例介绍概要写作方法。

结果第一堂课上下来,不只是学生,连我也感到十分的吃力。课一上完,所有老师们给我的意见都是文本长,难懂,整堂课内容实在太多。另外一个问题就是我每一部分都让学生课堂上写,实际上学生产出非常慢,时间根本来不及。因此,我又不断删减修改上课再删减修改。最终在第五稿的时候,我才让这节课能在40分钟左右完成。在这一稿,我改变思路,我让学生先在预习学案中尝试着去写,然后我把学案收回来并且收集学生的一些典型句子。我把这些句子放在课件上,让学生通过对比来判断哪一篇写得好,然后以写得好的概要为例,跟原文对比去发现一些找关键词的技巧。这样大大节约了时间,同时也能实现课上更多展现学生的写作。当学生总结出一些方法后,我再让学生使用该方法进行操练,给相似的课外段落写概要。

在最后的公开课上,我有一些紧张。这个班大部分都是女孩子,因此气氛不比男孩子多的班级,还好学生们都很配合,让我紧张的心情稍微得到缓解。

上完后,我回顾了这段时间的磨课以及公开课的表现,我自知仍有许多不足。第一:我在课堂过程中给学生展示的机会过少,说实话我很怕让学生展示,因为我总觉得会发生一些难以掌控的事情。但是,新教师的成长不就是应该在这些困难、矛盾、窘迫中前进吗?看来我需要给学生更多的时间和耐心,也对自己有更多的信心。我觉得下一次我应该这样做。在学生写作展示这一环节我可以尝试让学生上来展示他的写作思路,谈谈他是如何寻找关键句关键词,这样应该更加能引起学生的兴趣和共鸣。第二:我一紧张就话多,有的时候我感觉自己一直不停地重复说话。过多的话语肯定会对学生的思考造成干扰。课堂整体上还需要控制自己的语言,尽量让自己的语言简洁明了,不要过多地重复。第三:经过这一次锻炼,我意识到教师对文本的解读很大程度上反映了一个教师的教学水平。有经验的老师们对教材文本都有自己比较独到的见解。同时,教师对教材文本的解读对学生有很大的影响。因此,不管是对自己还是学生负责,我以后都应在文本解读上更加细致、严谨、科学。

在课后,我忐忑不安。感谢省教研员葛炳芳老师对我的课的评价,让我能够了解到自己的这堂课的优缺点。葛老师用了这样一个词来形容我的课—“实在”。

首先,葛老师肯定了我的教学设计,他认为我能从实际出发,设计的课难度适中。在这堂课上,我主要是完成了对学生课前写的概要的checkimprove。同时,给学生操练的课外练习也比较适合学生的水平,课上给了学生合理的时间来写作。然后,葛老师表示这堂课教学目标比较清晰,主要关注学生对信息的寻找和整合,重点突出。葛老师还向我们展示了他对这篇文本的解读,看完葛老师的解读,我发现自己在文本解读上的一些缺陷和薄弱。葛老师指出这堂课最重要的一点是我并没有把概要写作课上成一趟阅读课加写作课。他说老师们决不能因为新高考就打乱自己的教学,一味地把所有的课都努力上成概要写作读后续写。我们应该做的是把这些写作技能分解成微技能渗透在平时的教学中,切勿急于求成,还是要稳步前进。感谢葛老师对我的课的批评指正。

 

 

 

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